• We developed a metric assay to assess the toxicological adverse effects of compounds on the rat testes.

  • We can assess the number of TUNEL-positive, apoptotic cells in testes (below) or in other tissues to characterize pathological findings in toxicological studies, or to assess compound efficacy.

  • Kupffer cells are resident macrophages of the liver (brown cells below).  Increased numbers of Kupffer cells are associated with acute and chronic responses of the liver to toxic compounds.  We assess the number of Kupffer cells per unit area as a marker of toxicity to help you evaluate toxicological responses in the liver.