• Crown-like structures (CLSs) contain infiltrating macrophages and are believed to arrange around dead adipocytes forming a characteristic crown-like structure in the adipose tissue of obese animals and humans. 
  • After IHC to detect macrophages, we count the numbers of these CLSs per unit area in adipose tissues to evaluate compound efficacy.

  • Characterizing the density of F480-positive macrophages and/or changes in adipocyte sizes can also help assess in vivo compound efficacy studies.

  • We can evaluate the changes in islet sizes in your pre-clinical models.
  • We can assess changes of insulin-secreting beta-cells, as well as the other islet cells types in diseased tisssues (i.e. diabetic).